MINERAL SALTS, ANTI-CAKING AGENTS
|Sodium carbonates||(i) Sodium carbonate is naturally occurring in alkaline waters, however it is also synthesised by the Solvay process or by electrolysis of sea water. Sodium carbonate is used as an acidity regulator, particularly in beer making. Excessive ingestion may result in stomach upset.
Typical products include beer, baking, soft and fizzy drinks, medications. No known adverse effects in small quantities. May irritate the eyes and respiratory tract. |
(ii) Sodium hydrogen carbonate (Bicarbonate of soda) is used in food mainly as a raising agent, but also as a base. It is prepared synthetically.
(iii) Sodium sesquicarbonate occurs naturally in saline waters, it is used as a base. No adverse effects are known.
|Potassium carbonates||Mineral salt, adjusting and modifying agent. Used as gastric antacid and to replenish electrolytes in the body, cocoa, confectionary, custard powder and as for 500. No known adverse effects.|
|503||Ammonium carbonates|| (i) Ammonium carbonate |
(ii) Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
Produced from ammonium sulphate and calcium carbonate, natural minerals. Mineral salt, adjusting and modifying agent. Irritant to mucous membranes, alters pH of urine and may cause loss of calcium and magnesium. Used in some medications, baked goods, baking powder, cocoa items confectionary, ice cream.
|Magnesium carbonate||(i) Magnesium carbonate - Mineral salt, anti-caking, adjusting, bleaching, modifying agent. Medically used as an antacid and laxative. Magnesium is used in the treatment of heart attack patients, and promotes the health of arteries, bones, nerves and
teeth, low-sodium salt substitute, table salt. Other names: magnesium carbonate, magnesium (II) carbonate n-hydrate. |
(ii) Magnesium hydroxide carbonate (syn. Magnesium hydrogen carbonate) Magnesium hydrogen carbonate is used mainly as a buffer and anti-caking agent, but it is also used as an anti-bleaching agent. Typical products include sugar, salt, other granular foods.
|Hydrochloric acid||HCl can be prepared commercially by the reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium chloride, or directly by reaction of hydrogen and chlorine gases; the reaction is very exothermic and takes place readily in sunlight or at elevated temperatures. The major use of HCl is in the manufacture of other chemicals, but other principle applications include metal pickling, gelatine, dyestuffs, casein, pharmaceuticals, synthetic rubber and metal chlorides manufacture. Large amounts of hydrochloric acid are used in effluent treatment and for the regeneration of ion exchange resins in water treatment. Produced in the stomach to aid digestion. May have teratogenic properties and may be carcinogenic when mixed with formaldehyde. Safe in small quantities. Mainly for the malting of beer, gelatine manufacture, cornflour. Other names: muriatic acid, chlorohydric acid.|
|Potassium chloride||Mineral salt. Large quantities can cause gastric ulceration. Used as an electrolyte replenisher. Used in brewing, salt substitute, gelling agent, reduced sodium breads.|
|Calcium chloride||Mineral salt, modifying agent, preservative, firming agent, sequestrant. Derived from brine. Used in jelly, cheese, and to keep canned fruit/vegetable firm.|
|Ammonium chloride||Natural salt, part of sea salt and rock salt. Prepared from hydrochloric acid and ammonia. Should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function. Acidity regulator, flavour and nutrient for yeast in yeast-fermented products such as flour products, bread, bread mixes, low sodium salt substitute.|
|Magnesium chloride||Natural salt, part of sea salt and rock salt. Mineral salt, firming agent. Magnesium is an essential mineral. Used in foods and pharmaceuticals. Industrial grade not for human consumption. Can act as a laxative.|
|E513||Sulphuric acid||Sulphuric acid was manufactured by the lead-chamber process until the mid-1930s, but this process has now been replaced by the contact process, involving the catalytic oxidation of sulphur dioxide. The structure of sulphuric acid is considered to be a mixture of several rapidly interconverting equivalent forms. Typical products include beer. Banned in Australia. Has teratogenic properties. Avoid it.|
|Sodium sulphates||Prepared from salt and sulphuric acid. Mineral salt, anti-caking agent for diluting colour powders in beer, biscuits, chewing gum, confectionary. May upset the body's water balance.|
|Potassium sulphates||Mineral salt, anti-caking agent for beer, pharmaceuticals, salt substitute. No known adverse effects, but large doses can cause severe gastrointestinal bleeding, use sparingly.|
|Calcium sulphate||Mineral salt occurs naturally in the form of gypsum, and may be used as a sequestrant in food as well as a buffer and firming agent. Artificial sweetener base, bleaching agent for bread rolls, flour, tinned tomatoes, soy tofu, dried egg, cheese products, tooth paste. Used in mortar, cement and plaster of Paris. Derived from limestone. No known adverse effects.|
|E517||Ammonium sulphate||White solid, used in water purification.|
|Magnesium sulphate, Epsom salts||Prepared from magnesium salts and sulphuric acid. Natural mineral. Mineral salt, firming agent for medications, pharmaceuticals, nutrition supplements and infant formula as a mineral. Used in beer and a laxative. Dangerous to people with kidney problems and has teratogenic properties.|
|E519||Copper sulphate||Mineral salt, anti-caking agent which is manufactured but occurs naturally and used for making azo dyes. Fed to pigs to stimulate growth. A cumulative poison. Essential mineral for many body functions such as making blood and tissues to fighting infections. Naturally in meat, cereals, vegetables. Used in infant formula as a mineral supplement. NOT TO BE TAKEN ON ITS OWN.|
|E520||Aluminium sulphate||Natural mineral, from which the commercial product is purified. Aluminium sulphate is used to precipitate protein, for example during the beer brewing process. It also strengthens the structure of vegetables during processing. Found in Beer, pickled vegetables, proteins (deodorant, as anti-bacterial agent) Acceptable daily intake (ADI): None determined. Side effects: Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations. However with use of E520 the concentrations are too low.|
|E521||Aluminium sodium sulphate||Prepared from natural aluminium sulphate. It strengthens the structure of vegetables during processing. It is used as acidity regulator and bleaching agent in flour. Found in Flour, cheese, confectionary. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): None determined. Side effects: Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations. However with use of E521 the concentrations are too low.|
|E522||Aluminium potassium sulphate||Prepared from natural aluminium sulphate. It is used as acid source in baking powder for bakery products, baked at high temperature. It also stabilises colours. Used in Industrial baking powder. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 0,6 mg/kg bodyweight. Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations. However with use of E522 the concentrations are too low.|
|E523||Aluminium ammonium sulphate||Prepared from natural aluminium sulphate. It is used as acid source in baking powder for bakery products, baked at high temperature. It also stabilises colours. Used in Industrial baking powder. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 0,6 mg/kg bodyweight. Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations. However with use of E523 the concentrations are too low.|
|E524||Sodium hydroxide||Prepared from natural salt. Adjusting agent, base and colour solvent (caustic). Used in drain cleaners, cocoa products, sour cream, edible fats and oils, jam, tinned vegetables, glaze on pretzels, enhance the industrial peeling of fruits, to blacken olives and in the preparation of caramel. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.|
|E525||Potassium hydroxide||Mineral salt (caustic) used in cocoa products, cheese products, jam black olives. Banned in Australia, check imported foods. Avoid it.|
|Calcium hydroxide||Mineral salt made from lime as a firming and neutralising agent used in making beer, soap and glazing pretzels, infant formula as a mineral, cocoa products, sour cream, edible fats and oils, jam, tinned vegetables. Strong alkali used as acidity regulator, for example in wine. A solution of calcium hydroxide can be used to preserve eggs. A solution of calcium hydroxide and sugar (1:3) is used to regulate the acidity in frozen products. In strengthens the structure of vegetables during processing. No adverse effects in small quantities.|
|Ammonium hydroxide||Diluted household ammonia. Strong alkali used as acidity regulator. Also used for the production of caramel. Found in Egg and cocoa products, colours. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.|
|Magnesium hydroxide||Mineral salt. Milk of magnesia. Strong alkali used as acidity regulator. Used in cheese to enhance rennet and stabilises the colour of vegetables during canning. Laxative in high concentration. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.|
|Calcium oxide||Mineral salt prepared from chalk, used as adjusting and modifying agent used in bread, confectionary, sour cream, dairy products, tripe, tinned peas. Also used in the manufacture of sugar to remove impurities, in bakery products as stabiliser and as a nutrient for yeast. It is also used in the preparation of intestines for sausages (as cover, not filling). Safe in small quantities.|
|Magnesium oxide||Prepared from several minerals. Alkali, neutraliser and anti-caking agent. It can be found in frozen dairy products, butter, canned peas, cocoa products, medications. Used as a medical laxative in high concentrations. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.|
|Sodium ferrocyanide||Prepared from hydrogen ferrocyanide and sodium hydroxide. Crystal modifier, anti-caking agent. No adverse effects known for use in food. Use is very limited, partly due to the strong yellow colour.|
|Potassium ferrocyanide||Prepared from hydrogen ferrocyanide and potassium hydroxide. Synthetic crystallising agent. Metal removal in wine, anti-caking agent, seasonings, spices. By-product of coal gas production; low toxicity, reduces oxygen transport in the blood, which in turn may cause breathing difficulties, dizziness or headache. Banned in the United States.|
|537||Ferrohexacyano manganate||Prepared from hydrogen mangano-cyanide and iron hydroxide. Used as anti-caking agent. Used in liquorice powder (salmiak). Acceptable daily intake (ADI): None determined. Side effects: None in the concentrations used. Can be used by all religious groups, vegetarians and vegans.|
|E538||Calcium ferrocyanide||Prepared from hydrogen ferrocyanide and calcium hydroxide. Used as anti-caking agent. Found in Low-sodium salt. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 25 mg/kg bodyweight. None in the concentrations used.|
|539||Sodium thiosulphate||Synthetic compound. Used as anti-oxidant, especially
to inhibit browning in potato products. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 0,7
mg/kg bodyweight. Side effects: |
Thiosulphate is converted into sulphite and has similar side effects, see E221 . Can be used by all religious groups, vegetarians and vegans.
|Dicalcium diphosphate||Occurs naturally as monetite. Buffer, neutralising and raising agent in yeast products, dietary supplement. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.|
|Sodium aluminium phosphate, acidic||(i) : Acid sodium aluminium phosphate |
(ii) : Alkaline sodium aluminium phosphate
Synthetically produced from aluminium, phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide.
Acidity regulator, emulsifier used in baked goods, cheese products, confectionary, mince meat, frozen fish, stews. A risk to babies, elderly and people suffering from kidney and heart complaints. Aluminium impairs the calcium and phosphorous uptake by the body. Possible link to osteoporosis, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Avoid it.
|Sodium aluminium phosphate, alkaline||Banned in Australia. Avoid it. See Above.|
|Bone phosphate, edible bone phosphate||Derived from steaming animal bones. Used as anti-caking agent, emulsifier and source of phosphorous in food supplements. Main use, however, is in cosmetics (such as tooth paste) Used in dried milk for coffee machines, cane sugar, and as filler in tablets. Cannot be used by vegans, vegetarians, Muslims, Jews or Hindus. The product is made of animal bones, such as from pigs and cattle.|
|E543||Calcium sodium polyphosphate||Produced from sodium phosphate and calcium phosphate from non-animal origin. Used as emulsifier and stabiliser. Found in Processed cheese, frozen bakery products Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 70 mg/kg bodyweight. Polyphosphates may inhibit digestive enzymes in high concentrations.|
|544||Calcium polyphosphates||Produced by heating calcium phosphate. Emulsifier and stabiliser salts for use in foods mainly with dairy and cheese products in them, everything but fizzy drinks! May cause enzyme blocking in the digestive system and cause calcium phosphorous imbalance. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.|
|545||Ammonium polyphosphates||Produced by heating ammonium hydrogen phosphate. Emulsifier salts as for 544, plus chewing gum, beer, cider, herb teas, confectionary, processed nuts. Also used as nutrient for yeast and increases water binding properties. Banned in Australia. Avoid it. See 544|
|E550||Sodium silicate|| (i) Sodium silicate |
(ii) Sodium metasilicate
Produced by heating siliciumdioxide (quartz, sand) and sodiumcarbonate. Used as anti-caking agent, to preserve eggs, and to improve mechanical peeling of peaches. Also as a carrier for aromas. Found in Canned peaches, preserved eggs, vanilla powder. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): None determined. Side effects: None known
|Silicon dioxide||From sand or Quartz. No adverse effects are known in food use. Artificial sweetener, anti-caking agent, thickener and stabiliser in beer, confectionary, sausages, dried milk - huge range of foods.|
|Calcium silicate||Derived from limestone and diatomaceous earth (the silicified skeletons of diatoms, a single celled plankton), antacid, glaze, polishing, release, dusting agent in chewing gum, coating agent on rice. No known adverse effects.|
|E553(a)||Magnesium silicates|| (i) Magnesium silicate|
(ii) Magnesium trisilicate
Produced from magnesium sulphate and sodium silicate or directly from minerals such as talcum, sepiolite and steatite Antacid, glaze, polish, release, anti-caking, dusting, coating agent. Avoid it. Banned in Australia.
|E553(b)||Talc||Produced from magnesium sulphate and sodium silicate or directly from minerals such as talcum, sepiolite and steatite Has been linked to stomach cancer, typical products are polished rice, chocolate, confectionary, icing sugar, noodles, medicinal tablets.|
|Sodium aluminium silicate||Produced from several natural minerals. Mineral salt, anti-caking agent. Used in salt, dried milk substitutes, egg mixes, sugar products and flours. Aluminium is known to cause placental problems in pregnancy and has been linked to Alzheimer's Parkinson's, bone loss.|
|E555||Potassium aluminium silicate||Produced from several natural minerals. Used as anti-caking agent. Found in dry products, but hardly used. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): None determined. Side effects: None known|
|Calcium aluminium silicate||Produced from several natural minerals. Used as anti-caking agent. Used in dry products (milk), but hardly used. See 554|
|Bentonite||No known adverse effects. A natural type of clay from volcanic origin. Decolouriser, filter medium, emulsifier and anti-caking agent. Used in pharmaceutical agents for external use, edible fats and oils, sugar, wine. Known to block skin pores.|
|Aluminium silicate (Kaolin)||A fine usually white clay formed by the weathering of aluminous minerals (such as feldspar). No known adverse effects, except in large quantities can cause intestinal obstruction and tumours. Mineral salt, anti-caking agent used in medications and vending machine dried milk. Used in cosmetics, blocks skin pores.|
|Stearic acid||Saturated fatty acid, possibly of pig origin, cascarilla bark extract or vegetable fats. Anti-caking agent in chewing gum, confectionary, butter or vanilla flavouring for drinks, artificial sweeteners.|
|572||Magnesium stearate||No known adverse effects in food use. Stabiliser, anti-caking and release agent, emulsifier for artificial sweeteners and confectionary. Inhalation of the powder is harmful.|
|E572||Magnesium stearate, calcium stearate||See 572. Emulsifier, Anti-caking agent|
|E574||Gluconic acid||Gluconic acid occurs naturally in fruit, honey, kombucha tea and wine and is used as a food additive, an acidity regulator. It is also used in cleaning products where it helps cleaning up mineral deposits. It is a strong chelating agent, especially in alkaline solution. It chelates the cations of calcium, iron, aluminium, copper, and other heavy metals.|
|Glucono delta-lactone||No known adverse effects in food. Food acid, artificial sweetener base, acidity regulator. Made from glucose. Stops 'stone' formation during manufacture with milk and beer. Found in gluten free food, processed meat, cheese.|
|E576||Sodium gluconate||Sodium salt of gluconic acid, E574. Synthetic. Picks up metal traces and holds them in the product. Dietary supplement and sequestrant found in baked goods, confectionary, soft, sports and fizzy drinks, processed meats, nutritional supplements, desserts. Banned in Australia. Avoid it.|
|Potassium gluconate||Synthetic. Picks up metal traces and holds them in the product. No known adverse effects, mildly toxic by ingestion. Sequestrant, stabiliser. Used for treating hypokalemia (low levels of calcium). See 576.|
|Calcium gluconate||Synthetic. Picks up metal traces and holds them in the product. No known adverse effects but may cause stomach upsets and heart problems. Firming agent and buffer, sequestrant, acidity regular, artificial sweetener base. Used medically to replenish calcium in the body. Is contained in a large range of products but meat and cheese, infant formula supplement.|
|579||Ferrous gluconate||Colour-retention agent; Iron salt of gluconic acid, E574.; used in olives, iron supplements (use sparingly). In small amounts it is safe but may cause gastrointestinal stress. Used in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Restricted in the USA for colouring olives only as is known to cause death in children up to 24 months with only 1 - 2 grams! Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 0,8 mg/kg bodyweight|
|E585||Ferrous lactate||Iron salt of lactic acid, E270. Iron supplement. Found in infant formula.
Acceptable daily intake (ADI): |
Up to 0,8 mg/kg bodyweight. Side effects: None known. Lactic acid and lactates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. Although the name refers to milk, it is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance.