MISCELLANEOUS

(900-1520)

"In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act." ~ George Orwell
Number Name Comments
900
E900
Dimethyl polysiloxane Silicone based water repellent, anti-foaming agent, emulsifier, anti-caking agent used in confectionary, cordials, syrups and toppings, soft drinks, instant coffee, vinegar, chewing gum, chocolates. No known effects when used in food.
901
E901
Beeswaxes, white & yellow Glazing agent, used to wax fruit, confectionary, chocolate, ice cream, snack food, slow release pills, etc.  Occasionally causes allergic reactions when used in cosmetics.
E902 Candelilla wax Natural polymer produced from the Mexican trees Euphorbia antisyphilitica , E. cerifera and Pedilanthus pavonis .Glazing agent, used to wax fruit and vegetables. Not enough research done to be conclusive. Used as substitute for Carnauba wax (903)
903
E903
Carnauba wax Natural polymer produced from the Canauba palm (Copernica cerifera ) and related species from Brazil. Used in cosmetics and inks, and to wax fruit, chocolates, cocoa products, chewing gum, confectionary, flavour carrier in drinks, savoury snacks, toppings. Occasionally causes allergic reactions (dermal eczema) and possible carcinogen.
904
E904
Shellac, Lac Derived from the Lac insect of India; occasionally causes irritations of the skin. Used as glazing agent, chocolate, confectionary, orange fizzy drinks, orange skin, medications. Can be used by all religious groups and vegetarians. Vegans generally avoid the product as there are still lice in the raw product. These are eliminated during purification.
905(a) Mineral oil, white Synthetic mixture of hydrocarbons. Chewing gum ingredient, sealant, glazing agent, de-foamer, food processing machine lubricant, protective coating on fresh vegetables and fruit, lubricant and binder for tablets and capsules. Listed as having teratogenic properties probably responsible for bowel cancer and can cause defects.
905(b) Petrolatum (petroleum jelly)(Vasaline) Synthetic mixture of hydrocarbons. May contain aromatic hydrocarbons and petrolatum extracts are listed as having teratogenic properties. May inhibit absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins, mild laxative.
E905(c) Paraffins, Microcrystalline wax Synthetic mixture of hydrocarbons. May inhibit absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins, mild laxative, there may be a link to bowel cancer. Used on sweets, in processing yeast, vitamin tablets, dried fruit, confectionary, collagen.
906 Gum benzoic Natural polymer derived from trees from the genus Styrax from Southeast Asia . Formerly used as preservative in fats. At present only used as part of many flavours and essences. Found in many different products, but mainly in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations (perfumes, make-up). Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : None determined. Side effects: None known, but it often contains benzoic acid (E210).
Can be used by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.
E907 Refined microcrystalline wax For tablet coatings, chewing gum. Polishing, release and stiffening agent. Banned in Australia. Avoid it. See E905(c)
908 Rice bran wax Natural polymer derived from rice bran. Coating and used in chewing gum. Found in chewing gum, confectionary.
E910 L-cysteine A naturally occurring sulphur containing amino acid, derived from cystine, that the body needs to produce Glutathione, one of the body's major antioxidants. Natural sources of cysteine include eggs, meat, dairy products and some cereals although it is commercially produced from hair, both animal and human, (which is around 12% cysteine) and feathers. In compound form (E920 and E921) it is used in flour and bakery products (except wholemeal) where it is used as an improving agent and in chicken stock cubes where it is used as a flavour. Diabetics should be aware that there are some reports that it may interfere with insulin and there are anecdotal reports that it can react with monosodium glutamate (E621) in individuals who suffer from the so called Chinese restaurant syndrome, a set of symptoms, including headache, burning sensations, dizziness and disorientation
E912 Montanic acid esters Wax obtained by solvent extraction of lignite (brown coal). It consists of non-glyceride carboxylic acid esters, free acids and resins. Coating for citrus fruits. Avoid it.
913 Lanolin,
Hydrous wool fat
A fat like substance derived from sheep wool.  Contains 25% water as a water-in-oil emulsion and is used as an ointment base, an emollient for the skin, and in chewing gum.
E914 Oxidized polyethylene wax Protective coating on fruits and vegetables. Avoid it.
E915  Esters of Colophane Resin obtained from the pine tree Pinus silvestris and related species. Stabiliser, used as a flavour and in chewing gum. Citrus flavours. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): None determined. Side effects: None known.
920
E920
L-Cystein monohydrochloride Flour treatment agent derived from animal hair and chicken feathers. If from China - human hair. Used in shampoo and chicken flavouring. Bread enhancer. It stabilises the structure of leavened bread. Aid to detoxification of many chemicals related to smoking, prevent hangovers and also prevent brain and liver damage due to alcohol consumption. Useful for rheumatoid arthritis, helps the immune system and promotes healing.  Is a known neurotoxin.
E921 L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate See 920.
922 Potassium persulphate Produced from potassium metasulphate and hydrogen peroxide. Bread enhancer. It stabilises the structure of leavened bread.
923 Ammonium persulphate Produced from ammonium metasulphate and hydrogen peroxide. Bread enhancer. It stabilises the structure of leavened bread.
E924 Potassium bromate Large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, kidney damage and failure. The WHO in 1993 said that this ingredient is no longer acceptable for use as it is a possible carcinogen.  Typically used in flour products.
925
E925
Chlorine Destroys nutrients, listed carcinogen, in some areas tap water is contaminated with it (most of Australia!), to make it 'safer' to drink. Typical products are flour products for bleaching, as a disinfectant, decolouriser and irritant poison. Toxic by inhalation, ingestion and through skin contact. Inhalation can cause serious lung damage and may be fatal. 1000ppm (0.1%) is likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths, and half that concentration fatal after a few minutes. May irritate or burn skin.
926
E926
Chlorine dioxide
chlorodioxide
chlorine oxide
See 925. Obtained from chlorine and sodium chlorite. Bread enhancer. It stabilises the structure of leavened bread. Bleaching agent for flour. Bread but not often used. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : Up to 30 mg/kg bodyweight. Corrosive, Severe respiratory and eye irritant.
E927(a) Azodicarbonamide Azoformamide. Flour treatment and bleaching agent in baked goods, breads, rice, chewing gum, flour, grains.  The US FDA require further testing. Banned in Australia.  Avoid it.
E927(b) Carbamide Obtained from ammonia and carbon dioxide. Used as nutrient in fermented products. Potential allergen. Used to bleach teeth and inhibit potato sprouting.
928
E928
Benzoyl peroxide Obtained from benzoylchloride and sodium peroxide. Approved by FDA* for bleaching the carotenoids in refined flours, cheese, milk, rice, starch.  Asthmatics and people with a history of allergies BEWARE, see Benzoic Acid (210).
930 Calcium peroxide Synthetic. Bread enhancer. Bleaching agent for flour. Asthmatics and people with a history of allergies BEWARE
E931 Nitrogen Used in freezing and vacuum packing. Antioxidant. Seems safe.
E932 Nitrous oxide Laughing gas Seems quite safe in small quantities, liver, kidney disease, cancer from long exposure. Used for bleaching flour and a whipping agent.
E938 Argon Used in welding. Inert gas. Seems safe.
E939 Helium Seems safe.
E940 Dichlorodifluoromethane Synthetic inert gas. Propellant, anti-freeze Canned and frozen products. Hardly used. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : Up to 1,5 mg/kg bodyweight.
941
E941
Nitrogen Antioxidant. Used in freezing and vacuum packing; seems safe.
942
E942
Nitrous oxide Seems quite safe in small quantities. Used for bleaching flour and a whipping agent.
E943(a)  Butane Natural inert gas. Propellant Found in Spray-cans. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): None determined. Side effects: None known by use in foods.
E943(b) Iso-butane Natural inert gas. Propellant Found in Spray-cans. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : None determined. Side effects: None known by use in foods.
E944 Propane Natural inert gas. Propellant Found in Spray-cans. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : None determined. Side effects: None known by use in foods.
E948 Oxygen Natural gas. Used in modified atmosphere packaging as preservative.  
Gas packed vegetables. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : None determined. Side effects: None known by use in foods. Listed as having teratogenic properties.
E949  Hydrogen Natural gas. Used in modified atmosphere packaging. Found in Gas packed products. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): None. Determined Side effects: None known by use in foods.
950
E950
Acesulphane potassium, Acesulphane K 200 times sweeter than sugar, has a bitter after taste.  Used widely as artificial sweetener in low joule gums, drinks, diet foods, etc.  Possible carcinogen in humans, caused cancer in test animals. Suggested that it is worse than Aspartame or Saccharin. AVOID IT!
951
E95
Aspartame See separate article. Artificial sweetener, too many adverse effects possible to list, 92 documented with the US FDA!, Some people are allergic to aspartame, migraine headaches are a common reaction in these people. Research currently in the USA in regard to incidence of brain tumours. Diet drinks containing it are banned for U.S. Airforce pilots and in an pilots magazine, commercial pilots are told to avoid it. In 9,000 products from low joule to pharmaceuticals. AVOID IT!
E952 Cyclamic acid and its Na and Ca salts Calcium & sodium cyclamate, artificial sweetener; known to cause migraines and other reactions, can be carcinogenic, caused damage to rats testicles and mouse embryos in tests.
Banned in the US and UK due its links with cancer.
AVOID IT!
953
E953
Isomalt,
Isomaltitol
Sugar substitute and humectant. Suitable for diabetics as it does not have a significant affect on blood glucose or serum insulin levels. Can cause softer than normal stool and intestinal gas.  Not permitted in infant foods.  Not listed for use in Australia.
954
E954
Saccharine Calcium & sodium saccharin; artificial sweetener derived from toluene (a known carcinogen). Not listed in Australia by number until 1992. Banned in 1977 in the US, but reinstated subject to strict labelling stating: "Use of this product may be hazardous to your health, this product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals". It interferes with normal blood coagulation, blood sugar levels and digestive function.
Banned in France, Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Spain.  Banned as food additive in Malaysia and Zimbabwe.  Banned as a beverage additive in Fiji, Israel, Peru, and Taiwan.
955 Sucralose
(trichlorogalactosucrose)
Artificial sweetener 600 times sweeter than sugar. Not listed in Australia prior to 1992.  Found under the brand name of "Splenda".  In animal test before being accepted in Australia, they showed detrimental effects to the thalamus glands, liver and kidney enlargement, and renal mineralisation.
956 Alitame Artificial sweetener 2000 times sweeter than sugar. Not listed in Australia prior to 1992.  Current research suggests that it is safe.  Not endorsed for use in the USA.
957
E957
Thaumatin Artificial sweetener and flour enhancer. A protein derived from the tropical plant Thaumococcus danielli; used to sweeten wines, chewing gum, Japanese cooking, bread and fruit.  Has a liquorice after taste.
E959 Neohesperidine DC Artificial sweetener 340 times sweeter than sugar from grapefruit seed. Not listed for use in Australia, but may be imported with foods. Little research on effects but is used in a large range of foods.
961
E961
Neotame See articles: One, Two
E962 Salt of Aspartame-acesulfame See 951.
965
E965
Maltitol, Maltitol syrup,
Hydrogenated glucose syrup
Humectant, artificial sweetener base, bulking agent, base for essences. Starch decomposed with digestive enzymes. In some of 953, plus used in confectionery, dried fruits, low-joule foods, chocolate, jam, ice cream; laxative in high concentrations.
966
E966
Lactitol A synthetic carbohydrate alcohol, produced from milk sugar (lactose) derived from whey (milk). Humectant, sweetener. A sugar alcohol in calorie controlled foods. Laxative in high concentrations of over 20g per day.  Lactitol is partly absorbed and metabolised as glucose by the body; the remaining fraction is fermented in the large intestine. During fermentation, gases are produced, which may cause bloating and flatulence. In intolerant persons it can act as a laxative. Side effects normally occur after an intake of 25-30 grams in a single dose, which is far above the usage in normal foods. Lactitol can be used by all religious groups and vegetarians, but not by vegans, as the source is milk sugar. The term carbohydrate alcohol is a chemical definition; lactitol does not contain alcohol (ethanol).
967
E967
Xylitol Humectant, artificial sweetener, stabiliser, bulking agent, sugar substitute. Found in raspberries, plums, lettuce and endives, though produced for commercial purposes from wood pulp; caused kidney stones and a diuretic effect on test rats, "a waste of time and the lives of the rats", for the JEFCA in 1983 ruled the tests invalid in relation to humans, the symptoms caused by 'physiological disturbances' in the rats!, we can only imagine what conditions led to upset rats. Used in low-joule foods and carbohydrate modified sweets, ice-cream chocolate, and jams; laxative in high concentrations. Xylitol is partly absorbed and metabolised as sugar by the body; the remaining fraction is fermented in the large intestine. During fermentation, gases are produced, which may cause bloating and flatulence. In intolerant persons it can act as a laxative. Side effects normally occur after an intake of 25-30 grams in a single dose, which is far above the usage in normal foods. Xylitol can be used by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. The term carbohydrate alcohol is a chemical definition; xylitol does not contain alcohol (ethanol).
E999 Quillaia extract Quillaia extract is a purified extract of the outer cambium layer of Quillaia Saponaria Molina, or Quillay Bark. The Quillaia tree is native to Peru and Chile, and cultivated in Northern Hindustan. Quillaia bark infusion has good foam capabilities due to the presence of saponin, a non-poisonous, white powder. Saponin is a glucoside which will yield quillaic acid and quillaia-sapotoxin upon decomposure. The latter products are both poisonous irritants, however it is the sapotoxin which foams upon shaking. Quillaic acid is also known as 3,16-dihydroxy-23-oxo-12-oleanen-28-oic acid. Used in the production of foam on non-alcoholic beverages. Use is banned in a number of countries. Used medically as a stimulating expectorant.
1000 Cholic acid Normal component of the bile of all vertebrates. Extracted from the bile of cows, but can also be produced synthetically. Emulsifier Used in egg powder. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 1.25 mg/kg bodyweight. Should be avoided by vegans, vegetarians and Hindus, but can be used by other religions.
1001 Choline salts and esters Emulsifier. Used in the treatment of Autism as it improves brain function and circulation to the brain.
1100@ Amylase Derived from mould mushroom or pig pancreas. Flour treatment agent. No adverse effects have been reported.
1101 Protease's
(Papain, bromelain, ficin)
Stabiliser, flavour enhancer, flour treatment agent, meat tenderiser and used in alcoholic beverages. Some are known to be possible teratogenic in nature.
1102 Glucose oxidase Anti-oxidant. Little information known at this time.
E1103 Invertase Derived from honey.
1104 Lipases See Glycerol (E455). Flavour enhancer.
1105
E1105
Lysozyme Anti-bacterial preservative. An enzyme, that is a normal constituent of tears, saliva, blood and (human) milk. Commercially prepared from chicken eggs or by bacteria. May be harmful by inhalation or ingestion, or act as an irritant. Used in infant nutrition, pharmaceutical preparations.
1200
E1200
Polydextrose Polymer of glucose, with some sorbitol. Produced by heating dextrose (glucose) in the presence of sorbitol and citric acid. Humectant and modifying agent in baked foods, modified carbohydrates, confectionary, chocolate, jam, ice cream, low joule foods.  Binds water and protects against freeze damage. Suitable for diabetics. Seems safe in small doses, can cause diarrhoea in large doses (90g per day), see warning in 967.  Not to be used for babies or infants
1201
E1201
Polyvinylpyrrolidone Synthetic polymer made from formaldehyde - supposed to be inert and non-toxic.  Excess may cause damage to the lungs or kidneys, gas and faecal impaction. Dispersing agent, colour stabiliser, Flavours and fragrances, pharmaceuticals. Coating for tablets; used in artificial sweeteners in low joule foods and chewing gum. Carcinogenic. Avoid it. Light sensitive, hygroscopic. Other names: povidone, PVP
1202
E1202
Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone
(PPVP)
Synthetic polymer. Clarifying agent for wine, beer and vinegar; colour and colloidal stabiliser, almost completely unabsorbed when taken orally. Artificial sweetener .  May cause damage to kidneys and stay in the system for up to a year. Avoid it.
1400
E1400
Dextrin Polymer of dextrose, prepared by partial degradation of starch. Thickener, vegetable gum, foam stabiliser in beer, artificial sweetener base from tapioca or corn. No known adverse effects, but not fully evaluated for safety.  Foods are made more digestible to babies, but the chemicals to create may be harmful.
1401 Acid treated starch Thickener, vegetable gum. No known adverse effects.  See 1400.
E1401 Modified Starch Prepared by treating starch or starch granules with inorganic acids. The starch is partially degraded. Thickening agent and stabiliser. Found in many food products, pharmaceuticals. Acceptable Daily Intake: None determined. Side effects: None known
1402 Alkaline treated starch Thickener, vegetable gum. No known adverse effects.  See 1400.
E1402  Alkaline modified starch Prepared by treating starch or starch granules with sodium- or potassium hydroxide. The starch is partially degraded. Thickening agent and stabiliser Contained in many food products, pharmaceuticals 
Acceptable Daily Intake: None determined. Side effects: None known
1403
E1403
Bleached starch Prepared by treating starch with bleaching agents. The starch is partially degraded and oxidised. Thickener, vegetable gum which may be bleached with sulphur dioxide (one of a choice), which is dangerous to asthmatics.  Used in baby food, jelly type sweets, wine gums, batter mixes - wide range of foods.  Further testing required.  See 1400.
1404
E1404
Oxidised starch Prepared by treating starch with hypochlorite. The starch is partially degraded and oxidised. Thickener, vegetable gum which is bleached with possible sulphur dioxide residue, which is dangerous to asthmatics.  High concentrations cause diarrhoea and kidney defects in animals. See 1403.  Further testing required.  See 1400.
1405 Enzyme treated starch Occurs naturally in the body.  Thickener, vegetable gum in baby foods.  May or may not be used in Australia.  No known adverse effects.  See 1400.
1410
E1410
Mono-starch phosphate Prepared by treating starch with phosphoric acid. The starch is partially degraded and phosphorylated. Thickening agent and stabiliser. No known adverse effects, further testing required.  See 1400.
E1411 Di-starch glycerol Prepared by treating starch with glycerol. The starch is partially degraded and combined with glycerol. Thickening agent and emulsifier. Many food products, pharmaceuticals
1412
E1412
Distarch phosphates (i) : prepared with trimetaphosphate
(ii) : prepared with phosphoroxychloride
Thickener used in baby food, carbohydrate modified foods, starch.  Not recommended for infant formulas. No known adverse effects, further testing required.  See 1400.
1413
E1413
Phosphated distarch phosphate Prepared by treating starch with a phosphorylating agent and phosphoric acid. The resulting starch has increased stability at high and low temperatures and is more resistant against acid. No known adverse effects, further testing required.  Prepared for baby foods, frozen foods, refrigerated sweets, soy and other infant formula.  Babies should not be given soy products.  See 1400.
1414
E1414
Acetylated distarch phosphate Prepared by treating starch with a phosphorylating agent and acetic acid. The resulting starch has increased stability and dissolves better at low temperatures. Thickener for food in cans: thin soups, foods and cereals for young children, soy and other infant formula.  Babies should not be given soy products.  No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.  May cause diarrhoea. See 1400.
1420
E1420
Acetylated starch Prepared by treating starch with acetic acid anhydride. The resulting starch is more stable at high temperatures and low pH. Thickener, vegetable gum in iced lollies, confectionary, yoghurts, egg white mix, fruit flavoured fillings. No known adverse effects, further testing required. May cause diarrhoea. See 1400.
1421
E1421
Starch acetate esterfied with vinyl acetate Prepared by treating starch with vinylacetate. The resulting starch is more stable at high temperatures and low pH. Comparable with E1420.Thickener, vegetable gum. No known adverse effects. May cause diarrhoea. See 1400 and 1420.
1422
E1422
Acelylated distarch adipate Prepared by treating starch with acetic acid anhydride and adipinic acid anhydride. This results in a starch that is resistant against stirring and high temperatures. Thickener, vegetable gum to give improved 'mouth feel' in a wide range of foods such as relishes and pickles, fruit pies and fillings, baby food. No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.  See 1400.
1423 Acetylated di-starch glecerol Prepared by treating starch with acetic acid anhydride and glycerol. This results in a starch that is resistant against stirring and high temperatures and with a high stability after cooling. Thickening agent. Many food products. Acceptable Daily Intake: None determined
E1430  Distarch glycerine Stabiliser, Thickening agent
1440
E1440
Hydroxypropylstarch Prepared by treating starch with propyleneoxide. The resulting starch is more stable against acid, alkaline and starch degrading enzymes. It also provides better colour and shine to products. Thickener, vegetable gum from potatoes, wheat, maize, rice, barley, or roots like cassava.  No known adverse effects, further testing required.  It may slow down the degradation of food in the intestine. See 1400.
E1441  Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine Prepared by treating starch with propyleneoxide, epichlorhydrine and glycerol. The resulting starch is more stable against acid, alkaline and starch degrading enzymes. It also provides better colour and shine to products and is more stable after cooling. Stabiliser, Thickening agent. It may cause diarrhoea.
1442
E1442
Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate Prepared by treating starch with propyleneoxide and phosphoric acid. The resulting starch is more stable against acid, alkaline and starch degrading enzymes. It also provides better colour and shine to products and has very good freeze-thaw properties. Thickener, vegetable gum in frozen products. No known adverse effects, further testing required. It may slow down the degradation of food in the intestine. See 1400.
1450
E1450
Starch sodium octenyl succinate Prepared by treating starch with octenylsuccinate. Thickener, vegetable gum where oil and water must mix in salad dressings, drink whiteners, dry drink bases, essences. No known adverse effects, further testing required.  See 1400 and 1422.
E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch Thickener, vegetable gum. No known adverse effects, further testing required.
1501 Benzylated hydrocarbons (i): Benzyl alcohol
(ii): Benzyl acetate
(iii): Benzyl benzoate
Natural compounds, which constitute part of the flavour and fragrance of many plant species. They are commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Flavourings and fragrances. Found in many products; these compounds are also used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Acceptable Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. No side effects known when used in foods. Skin problems may occur when used in cosmetics.
1502 Butane-1,3-diol It is commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Solvent for flavours. In tobacco products. Acceptable Daily intake: Up to 4 mg/kg body weight.
1503 Castor Oil Natural oil extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor bean). Castor oil is a flavour component as well as a solvent for flavours. Found in flavoured sugar, lip products, etc. Acceptable Daily intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight.
1504 Ethyl Acetate Natural component of many fruits; it is commercially produced from acetic acid. Ethyl acetate is a flavour component as well as a solvent for flavours. Found in many products with fruit flavour. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 6 mg/kg body weight.
1505
E1505
Triethyl acetate or citrate Commercially produced from citric acid. Whipping aid, thickener, vegetable gum for flavoured and sports drinks, egg white liquid or dried. Part becomes alcohol in the body.  See 1510.
1510
E1510
Ethanol, ethyl alcohol, Ethanon Alcohol. Not permitted in foods in Australia, but used in cough medicines, perfumes, mouth wash, antiseptic, hairspray as an additive carrier not listed except in alcoholic drinks. Suspected neurotoxic hazard, danger to persons with Candida and allergies.  In ice creams, dessert sauces, apple cider, stews and casseroles, tomatoes and rock melon.
1516 Glycerol monoacetate Commercially produced from acetic acid and glycerol. Solvent for flavours. Found in many products.
E1517 Glycerol diacetate Glycerol diacetate is commercially produced from acetic acid and glycerol. Used as solvent for flavours. May cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhoea, thirst, dizziness and mental confusion.
1518
E1518
Glycerol triacetate, triacetin Binder for solid rocket fuels.  Fungicide, humectant and solvent  for flavours derived from glycerol; used to coat fresh fruit in the US, essences, cigarette filters. Other names: triacetin, glyceryl triacetate, 1,2,3-propanetriyl triacetate, 1,2,3-propanetriol triacetate, triacetylglycerol.
1520
E1520
Propylene glycol Propylene glycol is commercially produced from propylene and carbonate. Humectant, wetting agent, dispersing agent, radiator anti-freeze, petroleum based; its glycerine like taste has made it popular for children's medications and other elixirs; used in many toothpastes, topical creams and ointments, in cosmetics, hair products and deodorants, artificial sweetener bases, liquid food colour, essences, sweetened coconut, chewing gum, chocolates. Total recall of all medications in USA (if you still have some old ones, throw them out!) and has been linked with fatal heart attacks (when given intravenously), central nervous system depression and cosmetic or pharmaceutical contact dermatitis. Suspected as a neurotoxic hazard.

Material Data Safety Sheets recommend not have dermal contact, wear rubber gloves. Other names: 1,2-propanediol; 1,2-dihydroxypropane; methylethylene glycol; propane-1,2-diol

1521 Polyethylene glycerol 8000 Artificial sweetener, anti-foaming agent. Known to cause renal failure in burns victims.
1525 Hydroxy ethyl cellulose Hydroxy ethyl cellulose is commercially produced from ethanol and cellulose. Thickening agent. Found in many products. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. Side effects:
None known when used in foods. In high concentrations it acts as a laxative.
* Food and Drug Administration

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PO Box 44, Klemzig, South Australia, 5087