|Eau de Parfum||Women’s fragrance with a lighter scent concentration than perfume (8 to 15%). Can be used in a spray application.|
|Eau de Toilette||See Toilet Water|
|Eczema||Acute or chronic weeping, crusting and inflammatory skin conditions. Eczema is more the description of a symptom than of a disease. The word has become synonymous with dermatitis.|
|EDC||Eau de Cologne. See Cologne|
|EDP||See Eau de Parfum|
|EDT||See Toilet Water|
|EDTA||An artificial chemical that is used as an antioxidant and as a "complexing" agent in shampoos, which means that it binds metallic irons so that the surfactants can work more effectively. Potential for causing contact dermatitis. See Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid|
|Elastin||A biological additive fibre within the dermis similar to collagen, gives support and “snap?to the skin. In topical's, it cannot penetrate the skin, but is great for protecting against moisture loss, but may inhibit skin function. Found in shampoo, hair conditioner, skin creams and lotions.|
|Elder Flowers||Elder flower has been used for generations to keep complexion soft. It both tones and protects the skin.|
|Ellagic Acid||This naturally occurring ingredient helps to inhibit the formation of sun and age spots.|
|Emollients||Prevent water loss and have a softening and soothing effect on the skin. They can be natural, like almond oil, or manufactured, like mineral oil.|
|Emulsion||A stable combination of oil and water phases accomplished with the use of surfactants.|
|Emu oil||A biological additive in hand cream, cosmetics. Reported to have beneficial effects.|
|Endocrine (hormonal) Disruptors||
Butyl Benzyl Phthalate
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)
Methyl-benzylidene Camphor (4-MBC)
|Epidermis||The outer layer of skin.|
|EPO - Evening primrose oil||See evening primrose oil|
|Essential Fatty Acids||Sometimes known as vitamin F, these substances can't be manufactured by the body and must be consumed in the diet. There are three types: linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic. The primary fatty acids fulfil many functions in our bodies. They lubricate, aid in the transportation of oxygen to the cells, and help thicken the blood.|
|Essential Oils||Oily liquids obtained from plants. Complex mixtures of alcohols, ketones, phenols, acids, ethers, aldehydes, esters, oxides, and sulphur compounds (among others). They're also called volatile oils, ethereal oils, essences, or absolutes.|
|Ethanol (or ethyl alcohol)||Colourless, vaporizable liquid. Has a burning taste. Well-known to most of us as the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Commonly called simply "alcohol," although there are many other kinds of alcohols. Ethanol is widely used in cosmetics as a solvent and as an antibacterial agent. As a preservative, it's effective at concentrations of 15% to 20%. It's an antitoxin in concentrations of 60% to 70%, with a bactericidal effect within 45 seconds. It's also used in acne treatments and in rinses for oily hair. Ethanol absorbs water and thus can be very drying in fast-drying skin lotions (at concentrations of 15%); the lotions need to include glycerols and vegetable oils to minimize the drying effect. Provokes a late allergic reaction in some people when used topically. Taken orally, ethanol is toxic in doses above 80g. Ethanol is often purposely made poisonous by the addition of methanol and it is then known as SDA (specially denatured alcohol).|
|Ethanolamines (mono, di, tri)||A preservative, emulsifier in hair dye, cold
permanent-wave lotions, soap.
MSDS: Irritating to eyes,
respiratory system and skin. Harmful by inhalation.
|Ethers||Used as a solvent. A mild skin irritant. Inhalation or ingestion causes central nervous system depression.|
|Ethoxyethanol||A solvent in cosmetics, nail enamel, shampoo. Flammable. Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. Irritating to respiratory system. Central nervous system depression, developmental, reproductive and neurotoxicity, can penetrate the skin.|
|A solvent in nail polish. Toxic, but less than ethoxyethanol.|
|2-Ethoxyethyl-p-cinnamate||A UV absorber. See Cinoxate.|
|4-Ethoxy-m-phenylene-diamine sulphate||A hair dye. See Phenylenediamine.|
|Ethoxylated Alcohols||May contain carcinogenic contaminates|
|Ethoxylated surfactants||Ethoxylated surfactants are widely used in
cosmetics as foaming agents, emulsifiers and humectants. As part of
the manufacturing process the toxic chemical 1,4-dioxane, a potent
carcinogen, is generated.
On the label, they are identified by the prefix "PEG", "polyethylene", "polyethylene glycol", "polyoxyethylene", "-eth-", or "-oxynol-".
|Ethyl Acetate||A solvent, flavouring compound made from acetic acid and ethyl alcohol, used in after shave, cologne, perfume, shampoo, nail colour, nail enamel remover, fabric softener, dishwashing liquid. May irritate skin. Narcotic. On US EPA Hazardous Waste list; irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract, may cause headache and narcosis (stupor), defatting effect on skin and may cause drying and cracking, may cause anaemia with leukocytosis and damage to liver and kidneys. Wash thoroughly after handling.|
|Ethyl alcohol||A solvent. See ethanol.|
A solvent, pH control in thigh creams, cosmetics,
metal polish, pesticides. Toxic if inhaled or absorbed by the skin, severe
eye and skin irritation, asthma, contact dermatitis, sensitisation,
harmful to aquatic organisms.
MSDS: Flammable. Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed. Causes burns. May cause sensitisation by inhalation and skin contact. Corrosive. The toxicological properties of this material have not been fully investigated.
Ethylenediamide tetraacetic acid
|A sequestrant, preservative, chelating agent in hair dyes, shower gel, shampoo, bar soap, face and hand gels, oral supplements, carbonated beverages, dishwashing liquid, pesticides. Reported to have health benefits when used in chelated therapy, adverse affects include asthma, skin and mucous membrane irritation, kidney damage, teratogenic. On NIH hazard list. Harmful to aquatic organisms.|
|Ethylene glycol||A solvent in perfume, liquid soap, cosmetics, insect repellent, antifreeze, car wax, shoe products. Central nervous system depressant, immuno, liver, respiratory, gastrointestinal and kidney toxicity, contact dermatitis.|
A humectant in cosmetics, shampoo, fumigant used on
ground spices and other processed natural seasonings. Liver,
gastrointestinal, neuro, respiratory and kidney toxicity, headache,
vomiting, spontaneous abortion, teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic.
MSDS (extract from Shell Chemicals): Toxic by inhalation. Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. May dull the sense of smell and has a high odour threshold, so do not rely on odour as an indication of hazard. Exposure to rapidly expanding gases may cause frost burns to eyes and/or skin. Irritating to skin. Liquid solutions of ethylene oxide cause serious chemical burns of the skin and eye lesions. The severity of injury will vary depending on the concentration and duration of skin contact. Concentrations of around 50% are the most dangerous, however a 1% solution of EO in water and gaseous EO dissolved in sweat can also cause damage to the skin. The onset of effects may be delayed for several hours.
Possibility of organ or organ system damage from prolonged exposure. Target organ (s): Peripheral nervous system.
Causes serious nerve damage by prolonged exposure resulting in sensory loss. May cause cancer. May cause heritable genetic damage.
|Ethyl ester of PVM/PA copolymer||A film former in hair setting preparations. Considered safe as currently used in cosmetics.|
|Ethyl methacrylate||A thickening agent used in nail polish, artificial nails. Skin irritation, allergic reactions, neurotoxicity, allergic contact dermatitis, teratogenic|
|Ethyl myristate||An emollient, flavouring in cosmetics, foods, cigarettes. Considered safe. Can promote acne.|
|Ethyl palmitate||An emollient, flavouring in cosmetics, foods, cigarettes. Considered safe. can cause contact dermatitis.|
|A preservative used in cosmetics, makeup, shampoo, deodorant. Allergic reactions, skin irritation, contact dermatitis, moderate potential for bio-accumulation. See Paraben's.|
A flavouring used in perfumes, foods, cigarettes. Allergic reactions
especially in people allergic to salicylates.
A depilatory agent.
|Eucalyptus Extract/ Oil||Stimulating and antiseptic oil. Aids in the formation of healthy skin tissue. Very healing.|
A additive, fixative in perfumes, dentifrices, foods. Allergic reactions,
vomiting and gastric irritation, large oral doses (1 tsp) can be fatal.
|Euxyl K-400||This is one of the newer, more modern preservatives used in skin creams. There are increasing reports from physicians regarding patients who are sensitive to it, and physicians are being encouraged to test it with their patients for allergic contact dermatitis. Data are sufficient for classification as a hazardous substance with respect to Sensitisation by Skin Contact according to the NOHSC Approved Criteria for Classifying Hazardous Substances (1999). A concentration cut-off of ≥ 1% is recommended.|
|Evening Primrose Oil||A tonic used in cosmetics. Believed to have beneficial health effects.|
|Exfoliant||A product used to shed the superficial cells of the outer layer of skin.|
|Exfoliate/Exfoliant||To remove the outermost layer of dead skin cells with a scrub or cleanser.|
|Ext. D&C||When followed by a colour, means that the US FDA has certified it as safe for use only in drugs and in cosmetics used externally and not around the eyes or inside the mouth. It is not safe for foods.|