Cosmetic Ingredients Reference Guide & Dictionary
Understanding Labels, Descriptions, Warnings, and Safety
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Saccharin Dental care products, lipsticks. Overt Carcinogen. According to Dr. Epstein, "The evidence on the carcinogenicity of saccharin is literally overwhelming."

MSDS: Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. Cancer suspect agent. The toxicological properties of this material have not been fully investigated. Possible risks of irreversible effects.

Potential Health Effects
Eye
: May cause eye irritation.
Skin: May cause skin irritation.
Ingestion: May cause irritation of the digestive tract. The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated. May be harmful if swallowed.
Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated.
Chronic: May cause cancer according to animal studies. May cause reproductive and foetal effects. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects.

Sachets A small decorative bag filled with fragrant material used to enhance one’s home, used to scent clothing in drawers, shoes, furniture, luggage.
Saffron A colouring, flavouring in perfumes, cosmetics, food, marking ink.
Safrole A fragrance, flavouring in cheap soaps, perfumes and a possible beverage flavouring. Safrole was once widely used as a food additive in root beer, sassafras tea, and other common goods. However, the FDA barred the use of safrole after it was shown to be mildly carcinogenic. Today, safrole is also banned for use in soap and perfumes by IFRA. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide piperonyl butoxide. More recently, safrole has been used as the main precursor for the clandestine manufacture of MDMA (Ecstasy) and MDEA (Eve).

MSDS:
Harmful if swallowed. Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect. May cause cancer.

Potential Health Effects
The toxicological properties of this material have not been investigated. Use appropriate procedures to prevent opportunities for direct contact with the skin or eyes and to prevent inhalation.

Salicylates A flavouring in ice cream, jam, cake mixes, chewing gum, antiseptics. See Methyl Salicylate. Allergic reactions in people sensitive to aspirin; hyperactivity; kidney, cardiovascular and neurotoxicity; asthma.
Salicylic Acid The active ingredient in aspirin. Classified as a BHA (beta hydroxy acid); medically used as an exfoliant and debriding agent. Cosmetically used in some chemical peels and to reduce oiliness, acne and the appearance of fine lines, also as an antiseptic and preservative. Occurs naturally in plants but can be synthetically created from phenol. Used in skin softener, face masks, make-up, hair dye remover, deodorant, suntan lotion, food, fungicide, topical treatment for acne. Avoid contact with face, genitals and mucous membranes.

MSDS: WARNING! HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED, INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN. AFFECTS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, KIDNEYS, AND PANCREAS. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. 

Potential Health Effects 
Inhalation
: Inhalation of dust may cause irritation due to its acidic character. Coughing, sneezing, and shortness of breath may occur. 
Ingestion: Ingestion of sizable amounts can cause "salicylism", as evidenced by abdominal pain, vomiting, increased respiration, and mental disturbances. Fatalities resulting from respiratory or cardiovascular failure are known. Mean lethal adult dose of salicylates is between 20 and 30 grams. 
Skin Contact: Mild irritant, may cause skin rash in sensitive individuals. Absorption of large amounts may produce symptoms paralleling ingestion exposure. 
Eye Contact: Severe irritant by animal testing. 
Chronic Exposure: Central nervous system disturbances such as rapid breathing, confusion and even convulsions may develop. Kidneys and pancreas can be affected by prolonged ingestion. 
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems or impaired kidney function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.

Saponins (Quillia Extract) Many plants (soap plants) contain substances called saponins which form a natural lather in water that is a gentle but effective natural cleaner and some have been used as an alternative to soap.
Sarcosines and sarcosinates A surfactant in shampoo, soaps, dentifrices, lubricating oils, dishwashing liquids. 
Sandalwood Oil Deep, soft, sweet, woody balsamic scent. Highly esteemed in China and India. Plays a part in Hindu ritual.
Sassafras Essential oil obtained from the roots of the Sassafras tree. Is a healing and antiseptic extract that can reduce irritation and swelling. Also used in perfumes, soaps, dentifrices, flavour in food, topical antiseptic.
Saturated Fats A fat usually of animal origin. When fatty acid chains can't accommodate any more hydrogen atoms they become saturated.
Sebaceous Glands Glands in the skin that open into hair follicles and from which sebum is secreted.
Seborrhea A condition in which there is over-activity of the sebaceous glands. The distinctive characteristics of the disorder are its common occurrence in hair areas (especially the scalp), the appearance of well-demarcated, dull yellowish-red lesions, and the associated presence of greasy or dry scales. Rashes can occur on the face, shoulders and chest.
Seaweed High in vitamins A, B - complex, C and E. A skin and scalp nutrient, soothing and toning.
Selenium Sulphide Anti dandruff shampoos and tinea treatments. Can severely irritate eyes. May cause dryness or oiliness of hair or scalp.

MSDS: Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed. Danger of cumulative effects. Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.

Potential Health Effects
Eye
: May cause eye irritation.
Skin: May cause skin irritation. May cause dermatitis.
Ingestion: Poison by ingestion. May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. May cause alopecia (loss of hair).
Inhalation: May cause irritation of the respiratory tract with burning pain in the nose and throat, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and pulmonary oedema. The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated. Inhalation may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation, oedema of the larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema. Toxic if inhaled.
Chronic: Chronic ingestion may cause liver damage. Chronic ingestion may cause central nervous system failure.

Sesame Oil Softens skin.
Shea Butter An excellent emollient for skin moisturizers made from Mangifolia Tree Nuts High in triglycerides and fatty acids.
Silica Highly oil absorbent. Some silica used in cosmetics, especially amorphous hydrated silica, may be contaminated with small amounts of crystalline quartz. Crystalline silica is carcinogenic.
Silicone derived emollients Silicone emollients are occlusive - that is they coat the skin, trapping anything beneath it, and do not allow the skin to breathe (much like plastic wrap would do.)

Recent studies have indicated that prolonged exposure of the skin to sweat, by occlusion, causes skin irritation. Some synthetic emollients are known tumour promoters and accumulate in the liver and lymph nodes. They are also non-biodegradable, causing negative environmental impact.

Dimethicone 
Dimethicone Copolyol 
Cyclomethicone

Silicone was and still is used as breast implants. Tens of thousands of women with breast implants have complained of debilitating symptoms. Anecdotal evidence indicates silicone to be toxic to the human body. For more detailed information on the dangers of silicone simply key "silicone toxicity" into a search engine.

Silk Powder Incorporated into cosmetic powders to help absorb skin moisture and oils.
Silk Proteins Prevents dehydration; commonly found in eye rejuvenation creams.
Silver nitrate A hair dye in metallic dyes.

MSDS
Potential Health Effects
Eye
: Contact with eyes may cause severe irritation, and possible eye burns.
Skin: Causes severe skin irritation. Causes skin burns.
Ingestion: Harmful if swallowed. May cause severe gastrointestinal tract irritation with nausea, vomiting and possible burns.
Inhalation: Causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns, breathing difficulty, and possible coma.
Chronic: May cause methemoglobinemia, which is characterized by chocolate-brown colored blood, headache, weakness, dizziness, breath shortness, cyanosis (bluish skin due to deficient oxygenation of blood), rapid heart rate, unconsciousness and possible death.

Skin Disease In the course of development before birth, skin is particularly associated with the nervous system. It is therefore not surprising that so many skin diseases are influenced by the emotional states. Other causes of skin disease are infections, glandular disorders and vitamin deficiencies. Early detection and treatment improve the prognosis for many skin conditions and medical advice can lead to beneficial therapy.
Skin Texture Appearance of the skin which may be rough, smooth, dull, dry and scaly, etc.
Skintone Makeup: Consistency with skin colour.
Skincare: Refers to the skin's firmness.
Soap A cleansing material made of oils, detergents and fragrance, used on skin. Comes in many different forms; bar soap, liquid soap, gels, and flakes. The detergents in soap combine with water to penetrate the skin, attract the dirt particles and separate them from the skin, making them easier to then rinse away.
Sodium Alginate Natural compound. Mostly used as a thickener and emulsifier in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.
Sodium alpha-olefin sulphonates A cleanser in shampoo, bath and shower products. May cause eye and skin irritation and sensitisation; foetal abnormalities
Sodium Ascorbate Used in cosmetics as an antioxidant and preservative.
Sodium Bicarbonate Neutralizes acid, making products less irritating; commonly known as baking soda.
Sodium Bisulphite Artificial chemical that is used as a hair relaxer and a preservative.
Sodium Borate Used in cosmetics as an emulsifier, preservative and detergent builder. Related to boric acid; potential irritant.
Sodium Carbonate Used in cosmetics as a humectant , buffer, alkaliser, oxidising agent in shampoo, vaginal douches, soaps, permanent wave solution, bath salts, dishwashing liquid, cigarettes, pesticides. Breathing difficulty, abdominal pain, collapse from ingestion; liver toxicity; can cause scalp, forehead and hand rash.

MSDS: DANGER! MAY CAUSE EYE BURNS. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. 

Potential Health Effects 
Inhalation
: Inhalation of dust may cause irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms from excessive inhalation of dust may include coughing and difficult breathing. Excessive contact is known to cause damage to the nasal septum. 
Ingestion: Sodium carbonate is only slightly toxic, but large doses may be corrosive to the gastro-intestinal tract where symptoms may include severe abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, collapse and death. 
Skin Contact: Excessive contact may cause irritation with blistering and redness. Solutions may cause severe irritation or burns. 
Eye Contact: Contact may be corrosive to eyes and cause conjunctival oedema and corneal destruction. Risk of serious injury increases if eyes are kept tightly closed. Other symptoms may appear from absorption of sodium carbonate into the bloodstream via the eyes. 
Chronic Exposure: Prolonged or repeated skin exposure may cause sensitisation.

Sodium Citrate Crystalline salt. Used in cosmetics as a sequestrant and an alkaliser, and in foods as a buffering agent.
Sodium chloride
table salt
A preservative, viscosity control  in shampoos, liquid hand wash, bubble baths, mouthwash, food, butter, meats, cigarettes. Can be irritating and corrosive to skin and mucous membranes; dry skin; skin rash; teratogenic.
Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate A surfactant used in shampoo, hand and body wash. See Anionic Surfactants. See Sarcosines.
Sodium cocoyl isethionate A surfactant in bar soap, body wash, skin scrubs. Considered safe.
Sodium Cyanide Carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic and causes adverse reactions
Sodium fluoride A preservative, oral care in cosmetics, toothpastes, dentifrices, cigarettes. See Fluoride. 

MSDS: DANGER! MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. AFFECTS RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, HEART, SKELETON, CIRCULATORY SYSTEM, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND KIDNEYS. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. IRRITATION EFFECTS MAY BE DELAYED. 

Potential Health Effects 
If inhaled or swallowed, this compound can cause fluoride poisoning. Early symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and weakness. Later effects include central nervous system effects, cardiovascular effects and death. 

Inhalation: Causes severe irritation to the respiratory tract, symptoms may include coughing, sore throat, and laboured breathing. May be absorbed through inhalation of dust; symptoms may parallel those from ingestion exposure. Irritation effects may not appear immediately. 
Ingestion: Toxic! May cause salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain. Symptoms of weakness, tremors, shallow respiration, carpopedal spasm, convulsions, and coma may follow. May cause brain and kidney damage. Affects heart and circulatory system. Death may occur from respiratory paralysis. Estimated lethal dose = 5-l0 grams. 
Skin Contact: Causes irritation, with redness and pain. Solutions are corrosive. Effects may not appear immediately. 
Eye Contact: Eye irritant! May cause irritation and serious eye damage. Effects may not immediately appear. 
Chronic Exposure: Chronic exposure may cause mottling of teeth and bone damage (osteosclerosis) and fluorosis. Symptoms of fluorosis include brittle bones, weight loss, anaemia, calcified ligaments, general ill health and joint stiffness. 
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Populations that appear to be at increased risk from the effects of fluoride are individuals that suffer from diabetes insipidus or some forms of renal impairment.

Sodium Hyaluronate Related to Hyaluronic acid (salt form), works to moisturize the skin; can hold more than 1000 times its own weight in water.
Sodium Hydroxide Also known as caustic soda or lye. A powerful alkali used in industry for cleaning drains and pipe lines also used in oven cleaners. Workers exposed to steam containing sodium hydroxide have suffered lung damage and an increased risk of throat cancer. Used in toothpastes and as a pH adjuster in skin creams. Causes contact dermatitis and may sensitise individuals to other chemicals.  Why is it included in toothpastes? The action of the lye helps remove stains and discolorations on teeth.; This seems to be an extreme way to get whiter teeth!

MSDS: POISON! DANGER! CORROSIVE. May be fatal if swallowed. Harmful if inhaled. Causes burns to the area of contact. Reacts with water, acids and other materials.

Ingestion: Corrosive! Swallowing may cause severe burns of mouth, throat, and stomach. Severe scarring of tissue and death may result. Symptoms may include bleeding, vomiting, diarrhoea, fall in blood pressure. Damage may appears days after exposure. 
Skin Contact: Corrosive! Contact with skin can cause irritation or severe burns and scarring with greater exposures. 
Eye Contact: Corrosive! Causes irritation of eyes, and with greater exposures it can cause burns that may result in permanent impairment of vision, even blindness. 
Chronic Exposure: Prolonged contact with dilute solutions has a destructive effect upon tissue. 
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems or impaired respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.

Sodium hydroxymethyl glycinate A Preservative in cosmetics. May release formaldehyde.
Sodium Laureth Sulphate (SLES) When combined with other chemicals, SLES and ALES (Ammonium Laureth Sulphate). It is frequently disguised in semi-natural cosmetics with the explanation "comes from coconut". May be contaminated with 1,4 dioxane (a known carcinogen). At 15% SLES is severely irritating. Can react with amines (such as DEA, TEA, MEA) to form carcinogenic nitrosamines. Can be retained in tissues up to 5 days even after a single drop.

See Anionic Surfactants
See Ethoxylated surfactants
See Nitrosating agents

MSDS:
WARNING! Causes skin and eye irritation! Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Classified as a moderate to severe eye irritant.

Acute Effects:
Harmful if inhaled or swallowed.
May be harmful if absorbed through the skin.
Causes severe eye irritation.
Material is irritating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract.
Symptoms of exposure may include burning sensation, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea and vomiting.
May cause allergic respiratory reaction.
The Sodium Salt of Dodecyl Sulphate has been reported to cause pulmonary sensitisation resulting in hyperactive airway dysfunction and pulmonary allergy accompanied by fatigue, malaise and aching. Significant symptoms of exposure can persist for more than two years and can be activated by a variety of non-specific environmental stimuli such as automobile exhaust, perfumes and passive smoking.

Chronic Effects:
Damage to lungs.
To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated.

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS) An ingredient in 90% of commercially available shampoo and conditioner. Corrodes hair follicle and impedes hair growth. Is found in car wash soap, engine degreaser, toothpaste, cream, lotion, and garage floor cleaners. Penetrates your eyes, brain, liver kidneys and remains there for a long time. Degenerates cell membranes and can change the genetic information (mutagenic) in cells and damage the immune system. May cause blindness and lead to cataracts. Eyes cannot heal properly. Retards the eye healing process. Studies also show that these additives react with the ingredients of food supplements or cosmetics, to form carcinogenic nitrates and dioxin. All of this may enter the circulatory system with each shampooing or each oral ingestion. The end result being that these harmful ingredients can be retained in the liver, heart, eyes, kidneys and muscles for several years after being used. It is further reported to cause eye irritations, skin rashes, hair loss, dandruff and allergic reactions. It's damage to mouth tissues from use in toothpaste could lead to an increase in gum disease where a trial of a toothpaste without SLS reduced mouth ulcers by 60%. Long term exposure on the scalp can cause hair loss and dandruff. Research has shown that SLS, combined with other chemicals can be transformed into nitrosamines, a potent class of carcinogens. At only 2% SLS is extremely irritating.
Sodium lauryl sulphoacetate A surfactant in cream shampoos, cleansing creams, bath bombs. Mild to strong skin irritation; slight eye irritation; slightly toxic to rats in oral doses.
Sodium Methyl Cocoyl Taurate An emulsifier, surfactant in cosmetics. May cause formation of nitrosamines.
See Nitrosating agents
See Anionic Surfactants
Sodium myreth sulphate An emulsifier in shampoos. Mild to moderate eye irritation in animal studies.
Sodium myristoyl sarcosinate A surfactant, antistatic agent in moisturisers. See Sarcosines.
Sodium C14-C16 olefin A surfactant in cosmetics, hair conditioner, shampoo. May cause skin irritation; hair dryness and denaturing; may cause nitrosamine formation.
Sodium Thioglycolate A chemical used in permanents as a hair relaxer. Is a primary irritant.
Sodium Oleth Sulphate An emulsifier in cosmetics. May contain dangerous levels of ethylene oxide and/or 1,4-dioxane, both potent toxins.
Sodium silicate
water glass
An anti-caking agent used in barrier creams, soaps, depilatories, preserving eggs, laundry detergent. Can cause skin and mucous membrane irritation; vomiting and diarrhoea when ingested.
Sodium stearate An emulsifier, surfactant in toothpastes, soapless shampoos, shaving lather. 
Solvents Found in sunscreens, some skin and hair care products. May increase the absorption of other chemicals. Can have health impacts when inhaled.
Sorbic Acid Preservative; primarily protects product from yeast overgrowth.
Sorbitan laurate An emulsifier in cosmetic creams and lotions. Generally recognised as safe; may cause contact urticaria.
Sorbitan monolaurate Many cosmetics. Caused adverse reproductive effects in animals & may be a carcinogen
Sorbitan oleate An emulsifier, plasticiser in cosmetics, eye shadows. Considered safe; may cause contact urticaria and allergic reactions.
Sorbitan palmitate Generally recognised as being safe; may cause contact dermatitis.
Sorbitan stearate Generally recognised as being safe; may cause contact urticaria.
Sorbitol Derived from fruit or algae. A humectant that gives skin a velvety feel. Gives a lubricant quality to lotions.
Soybean Oil Sugar-based ingredient; pulls water by osmosis from the largest source. Pale yellow oil. Consists of mostly glycerides of linoleic, oleic, linolenic, and palmitic acids.  Typically this is the air, so it helps hydrate skin. In arid conditions, however, water will be pulled out of the skin, resulting in dehydration. May be GM.
Soytimonium chloride A preservative, emulsifier in cosmetics. See Quaternary ammonium compounds.
Spearmint Oil A fragrance, flavouring used in perfumes, toothpaste, perfumed cosmetics, food, chewing gum, cigarettes. Essential oil obtained from the fresh spearmint plant. Known for its healing, soothing properties.
Spermaceti An emollient in shampoos, cold creams. Considered non-toxic but may become rancid and cause skin irritation.
Squalane A lubricant, emollient in skin and hair cosmetics. Considered safe.
Squalene An emollient, antistatic agent in skin care products, hair dyes, fixative in perfumes, shark liver oil, supplements. Considered to have beneficial health effects.
Starch A thickener in dusting powder, baby powders, dry shampoos, processed foods. Poorly digested; cosmetics can cause acne; dermatitis; hay fever.
Starch - modified A thickener, binder in cosmetics, processed food, baby foods, cigarette. Safety concern about the bodies resistance to chemicals used to modify the starch; diarrhoea in babies; when used in cosmetics can cause acne; hay fever; dermatitis.
Stannous fluoride An oral care agent. See Fluoride.
Stearalkonium Chloride Used almost universally in hair conditioners as a preservative. It was originally developed by the textile industry for use as a fabric softener , and is a lot cheaper and easier to use in hair conditioning formulas than proteins or herbals, which do help hair health. Toxic. See Cationic surfactants. See Quaternary ammonium compounds.  It also has antistatic properties.
Stearamide DEA An opacifier, antistatic used in shampoo, hair conditioner. DEA related ingredient, see Diethanolamine.
Stearamide MEA An opacifier, antistatic used in shampoo, hair conditioner. MEA related ingredient, see Monoethanolamine.
Stearamidopropyl betaine An antistatic agent in hair conditioners. See Quaternary ammonium compounds
Stearamidopropyl diethylamine An antistatic agent, emulsifier in hair conditioners. Allergic dermatitis; may promote the formation of nitrosamines. See Nitrosamines.
Stearamidopropyl Tetrasodium EDTA Nitrosamines can form in all cosmetic ingredients containing amines and amino derivatives with nitrogen compounds. Nitrosamines are known carcinogens.
Steareth-2,-4,-7,-10,-20,-30 Used as lotions and emulsifiers.
Stearic Acid Waxy, crystalline fatty acid used as an emulsifier, anti-caking agent used in deodorants, hand creams, barrier creams, soaps, chewing gum base, suppositories. Found in cocoa butter and other vegetable fats. It is mainly from tallow and other animal fats. May cause irritation; health effects not adequately investigated.
Stearoyl sarcosine An antistatic agent in shaving gel. See Sarcosines.
Stearyl alcohol An emollient, opacifier in depilatories, hair rinse, moisturisers, shampoos, pharmaceuticals. May cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis in people with sensitive skin.
Stevia and stevioside A natural sweetener, oral care agent used in toothpastes, dental care products, food, dietary supplements. No known side effects
Styrene A binder in the manufacture of cosmetic resins, chewing gum, manufacture of plastics. Liver, blood, endocrine, kidney and neurotoxicity; teratogenic and neurotoxicity; carcinogenic.

MSDS: DANGER! FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED, INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. AFFECTS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, LIVER AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. 

Potential Health Effects 
Inhalation
: Causes irritation to the respiratory tract. Symptoms may include coughing, shortness of breath. A central nervous system depressant. Higher exposures can cause a build-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary oedema), a medical emergency. 
Ingestion: May cause irritation to the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. May cause central nervous system depression. Symptoms may include lethargy, drowsiness, staggering and sleepiness. May cause possible convulsions and risk of pulmonary oedema. 
Skin Contact: Causes irritation to skin. Symptoms include redness, itching, and pain. May produce blisters. May be absorbed through the skin. 
Eye Contact: May cause irritation, redness, pain, and corneal damage. 
Chronic Exposure: Repeated exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, appetite loss, a sensation of drunkenness, general weakness, and functional disorders of the nervous system and liver. May cause dermatitis. Women may experience ovulation and menstrual disorders. May cause mutagenic and teratogenic effects. 
Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders, eye problems, liver disease, central nervous system disorders, or impaired respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.

Styrene/PVP copolymer A film former, opacifier used in liquid eyeliners. See styrene and Polyvinylpyrrolidone
Stratum Corneum The topmost layer of cells of the epidermis.
Styrene Monomer Carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic and causes adverse reactions. May be irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes.
Subcutaneous The third and innermost layer of the skin.
Sulphate Artificial liquid. Made with sulphated oils. Used to make manufactured soaps and detergents. Harmful to marine life and the environment.
Sulphites A preservative, antioxidant used in hair waves, hair dyes, artificial tanning products, foods and beverages, cellophane for food packaging. Asthma; anaphylactic shock; skin rash; nausea; stomach irritation; diarrhoea; swelling; destroys vitamin B1.
Sulphonamide A antibiotic used in cosmetics, nail polish, treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. Itching; skin rash; swelling; hives; kidney toxicity; teratogenic. On NIH hazards list.
Sulphur Helps kill normal bacteria on the skin improving acne, seborrhea and psoriasis conditions. Typically found in soaps, shampoos and some topical acne medications.
Sugar Cane Extract Gently removes damaged, dead and dry cell so fresh, healthy-looking skin can appear.
Sunflower Oil Extracted from sunflower seeds it is rich in essential fatty acids.
Sunscreen/Sun block Sunscreens provide protection from damaging/ harmful effects of UVB/ UVA rays. Sunscreens with a high Sun Protection Factor (SPF) can minimize the danger of photo damage and skin cancers. Sun blocks provide 100% protection from the sun and therefore do not enable one to tan.
Super oxide dismutase A biological additive, antioxidant used in hair care products, skin screens, encapsulated and injectable pharmaceuticals. Considered safe and beneficial.
Surfactant A material (substance) that helps oil and water to mix so that the two will not separate and will remain a smooth stable cream or lotion (Emulsifier). They are also are important for cosmetics where mildness is needed such as shampoos and lotions.

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