|Saccharin||Dental care products, lipsticks. Overt Carcinogen.
According to Dr. Epstein, "The evidence on the carcinogenicity of saccharin is literally overwhelming."
MSDS: Limited evidence of a carcinogenic
effect. Cancer suspect agent. The toxicological properties of this material have not been fully
investigated. Possible risks of irreversible effects.
|Sachets||A small decorative bag filled with fragrant material used to enhance one’s home, used to scent clothing in drawers, shoes, furniture, luggage.|
|Saffron||A colouring, flavouring in perfumes, cosmetics, food, marking ink.|
A fragrance, flavouring in cheap soaps, perfumes and
a possible beverage flavouring. Safrole was once widely used as a food additive in root beer, sassafras tea, and other common goods. However, the FDA barred the use of safrole after it was shown to be mildly carcinogenic. Today, safrole is also banned for use in soap and perfumes by
IFRA. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide piperonyl butoxide. More recently, safrole has been used as the main precursor for the clandestine manufacture of MDMA (Ecstasy) and MDEA (Eve).
|Salicylates||A flavouring in ice cream, jam, cake mixes, chewing gum, antiseptics. See Methyl Salicylate. Allergic reactions in people sensitive to aspirin; hyperactivity; kidney, cardiovascular and neurotoxicity; asthma.|
The active ingredient in aspirin. Classified as a BHA (beta hydroxy acid);
medically used as an exfoliant and debriding agent. Cosmetically used in
some chemical peels and to reduce oiliness, acne and the appearance of
fine lines, also as an antiseptic and preservative. Occurs naturally in
plants but can be synthetically created from phenol. Used in skin
softener, face masks, make-up, hair dye remover, deodorant, suntan lotion,
food, fungicide, topical treatment for acne.
Avoid contact with face, genitals and mucous membranes.
MSDS: WARNING! HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED, INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN. AFFECTS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, KIDNEYS, AND PANCREAS. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT.
|Saponins (Quillia Extract)||Many plants (soap plants) contain substances called saponins which form a natural lather in water that is a gentle but effective natural cleaner and some have been used as an alternative to soap.|
|Sarcosines and sarcosinates||A surfactant in shampoo, soaps, dentifrices, lubricating oils, dishwashing liquids.|
|Sandalwood Oil||Deep, soft, sweet, woody balsamic scent. Highly esteemed in China and India. Plays a part in Hindu ritual.|
|Sassafras||Essential oil obtained from the roots of the Sassafras tree. Is a healing and antiseptic extract that can reduce irritation and swelling. Also used in perfumes, soaps, dentifrices, flavour in food, topical antiseptic.|
|Saturated Fats||A fat usually of animal origin. When fatty acid chains can't accommodate any more hydrogen atoms they become saturated.|
|Sebaceous Glands||Glands in the skin that open into hair follicles and from which sebum is secreted.|
|Seborrhea||A condition in which there is over-activity of the sebaceous glands. The distinctive characteristics of the disorder are its common occurrence in hair areas (especially the scalp), the appearance of well-demarcated, dull yellowish-red lesions, and the associated presence of greasy or dry scales. Rashes can occur on the face, shoulders and chest.|
|Seaweed||High in vitamins A, B - complex, C and E. A skin and scalp nutrient, soothing and toning.|
Anti dandruff shampoos and tinea treatments. Can severely
irritate eyes. May cause dryness or oiliness of hair or scalp.
MSDS: Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed. Danger of cumulative effects.
Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
|Sesame Oil||Softens skin.|
|Shea Butter||An excellent emollient for skin moisturizers made from Mangifolia Tree Nuts High in triglycerides and fatty acids.|
|Silica||Highly oil absorbent. Some silica used in cosmetics, especially amorphous hydrated silica, may be contaminated with small amounts of crystalline quartz. Crystalline silica is carcinogenic.|
|Silicone derived emollients||Silicone emollients are occlusive - that is
they coat the skin, trapping anything beneath it, and do not allow
the skin to breathe (much like plastic wrap would do.)
Recent studies have indicated that prolonged exposure of the skin to sweat, by occlusion, causes skin irritation. Some synthetic emollients are known tumour promoters and accumulate in the liver and lymph nodes. They are also non-biodegradable, causing negative environmental impact.
Silicone was and still is used as breast implants. Tens of thousands of women with breast implants have complained of debilitating symptoms. Anecdotal evidence indicates silicone to be toxic to the human body. For more detailed information on the dangers of silicone simply key "silicone toxicity" into a search engine.
|Silk Powder||Incorporated into cosmetic powders to help absorb skin moisture and oils.|
|Silk Proteins||Prevents dehydration; commonly found in eye rejuvenation creams.|
|Silver nitrate||A hair dye in metallic dyes.
|Skin Disease||In the course of development before birth, skin is particularly associated with the nervous system. It is therefore not surprising that so many skin diseases are influenced by the emotional states. Other causes of skin disease are infections, glandular disorders and vitamin deficiencies. Early detection and treatment improve the prognosis for many skin conditions and medical advice can lead to beneficial therapy.|
|Skin Texture||Appearance of the skin which may be rough, smooth, dull, dry and scaly, etc.|
Makeup: Consistency with skin colour.
Skincare: Refers to the skin's firmness.
|Soap||A cleansing material made of oils, detergents and fragrance, used on skin. Comes in many different forms; bar soap, liquid soap, gels, and flakes. The detergents in soap combine with water to penetrate the skin, attract the dirt particles and separate them from the skin, making them easier to then rinse away.|
|Sodium Alginate||Natural compound. Mostly used as a thickener and emulsifier in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.|
|Sodium alpha-olefin sulphonates||A cleanser in shampoo, bath and shower products. May cause eye and skin irritation and sensitisation; foetal abnormalities|
|Sodium Ascorbate||Used in cosmetics as an antioxidant and preservative.|
|Sodium Bicarbonate||Neutralizes acid, making products less irritating; commonly known as baking soda.|
|Sodium Bisulphite||Artificial chemical that is used as a hair relaxer and a preservative.|
|Sodium Borate||Used in cosmetics as an emulsifier, preservative and detergent builder. Related to boric acid; potential irritant.|
Used in cosmetics as a humectant , buffer, alkaliser, oxidising agent in
shampoo, vaginal douches, soaps, permanent wave solution, bath salts,
dishwashing liquid, cigarettes, pesticides. Breathing difficulty,
abdominal pain, collapse from ingestion; liver toxicity; can cause scalp,
forehead and hand rash.
MSDS: DANGER! MAY CAUSE EYE BURNS. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN AND RESPIRATORY TRACT.
|Sodium Citrate||Crystalline salt. Used in cosmetics as a sequestrant and an alkaliser, and in foods as a buffering agent.|
|A preservative, viscosity control in shampoos, liquid hand wash, bubble baths, mouthwash, food, butter, meats, cigarettes. Can be irritating and corrosive to skin and mucous membranes; dry skin; skin rash; teratogenic.|
|Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate||A surfactant used in shampoo, hand and body wash. See Anionic Surfactants. See Sarcosines.|
|Sodium cocoyl isethionate||A surfactant in bar soap, body wash, skin scrubs. Considered safe.|
|Sodium Cyanide||Carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic and causes adverse reactions|
|Sodium fluoride||A preservative, oral care in
cosmetics, toothpastes, dentifrices, cigarettes. See Fluoride.
MSDS: DANGER! MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. AFFECTS RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, HEART, SKELETON, CIRCULATORY SYSTEM, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND KIDNEYS. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. IRRITATION EFFECTS MAY BE DELAYED.
Potential Health Effects
|Sodium Hyaluronate||Related to Hyaluronic acid (salt form), works to moisturize the skin; can hold more than 1000 times its own weight in water.|
|Sodium Hydroxide||Also known as caustic soda or lye. A powerful
alkali used in industry for cleaning drains and pipe lines also used
in oven cleaners. Workers exposed to steam containing sodium
hydroxide have suffered lung damage and an increased risk of throat
cancer. Used in toothpastes and as a pH adjuster in skin creams.
Causes contact dermatitis and may sensitise individuals to other
chemicals. Why is it included in toothpastes? The action of the lye helps remove stains and discolorations on teeth.; This seems to be an extreme way to get whiter teeth!
MSDS: POISON! DANGER! CORROSIVE. May be fatal if swallowed. Harmful if inhaled. Causes burns to the area of contact. Reacts with water, acids and other materials.
Swallowing may cause severe burns of mouth, throat, and stomach.
Severe scarring of tissue and death may result. Symptoms may include
bleeding, vomiting, diarrhoea, fall in blood pressure. Damage may
appears days after exposure.
|Sodium hydroxymethyl glycinate||A Preservative in cosmetics. May release formaldehyde.|
|Sodium Laureth Sulphate (SLES)||When combined with other chemicals, SLES and ALES
(Ammonium Laureth Sulphate). It is frequently disguised in semi-natural cosmetics with the explanation "comes from coconut".
May be contaminated with 1,4 dioxane (a known carcinogen). At 15% SLES is severely irritating. Can react with amines (such as DEA, TEA, MEA) to form carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Can be retained in tissues up to 5 days even after a single drop.
See Anionic Surfactants
See Ethoxylated surfactants
See Nitrosating agents
WARNING! Causes skin and eye irritation! Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Classified as a moderate to severe eye irritant.
|Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS)||An ingredient in 90% of commercially available shampoo and conditioner. Corrodes hair follicle and impedes hair growth. Is found in car wash soap, engine degreaser, toothpaste, cream, lotion, and garage floor cleaners. Penetrates your eyes, brain, liver kidneys and remains there for a long time. Degenerates cell membranes and can change the genetic information (mutagenic) in cells and damage the immune system. May cause blindness and lead to cataracts. Eyes cannot heal properly. Retards the eye healing process. Studies also show that these additives react with the ingredients of food supplements or cosmetics, to form carcinogenic nitrates and dioxin. All of this may enter the circulatory system with each shampooing or each oral ingestion. The end result being that these harmful ingredients can be retained in the liver, heart, eyes, kidneys and muscles for several years after being used. It is further reported to cause eye irritations, skin rashes, hair loss, dandruff and allergic reactions. It's damage to mouth tissues from use in toothpaste could lead to an increase in gum disease where a trial of a toothpaste without SLS reduced mouth ulcers by 60%. Long term exposure on the scalp can cause hair loss and dandruff. Research has shown that SLS, combined with other chemicals can be transformed into nitrosamines, a potent class of carcinogens. At only 2% SLS is extremely irritating.|
|Sodium lauryl sulphoacetate||A surfactant in cream shampoos, cleansing creams, bath bombs. Mild to strong skin irritation; slight eye irritation; slightly toxic to rats in oral doses.|
|Sodium Methyl Cocoyl Taurate||An emulsifier, surfactant in
cosmetics. May cause formation of nitrosamines.
See Nitrosating agents
See Anionic Surfactants
|Sodium myreth sulphate||An emulsifier in shampoos. Mild to moderate eye irritation in animal studies.|
|Sodium myristoyl sarcosinate||A surfactant, antistatic agent in moisturisers. See Sarcosines.|
|Sodium C14-C16 olefin||A surfactant in cosmetics, hair conditioner, shampoo. May cause skin irritation; hair dryness and denaturing; may cause nitrosamine formation.|
|Sodium Thioglycolate||A chemical used in permanents as a hair relaxer. Is a primary irritant.|
|Sodium Oleth Sulphate||An emulsifier in cosmetics. May contain dangerous levels of ethylene oxide and/or 1,4-dioxane, both potent toxins.|
|An anti-caking agent used in barrier creams, soaps, depilatories, preserving eggs, laundry detergent. Can cause skin and mucous membrane irritation; vomiting and diarrhoea when ingested.|
|Sodium stearate||An emulsifier, surfactant in toothpastes, soapless shampoos, shaving lather.|
|Solvents||Found in sunscreens, some skin and hair care products. May increase the absorption of other chemicals. Can have health impacts when inhaled.|
|Sorbic Acid||Preservative; primarily protects product from yeast overgrowth.|
|Sorbitan laurate||An emulsifier in cosmetic creams and lotions. Generally recognised as safe; may cause contact urticaria.|
|Sorbitan monolaurate||Many cosmetics. Caused adverse reproductive effects in animals & may be a carcinogen|
|Sorbitan oleate||An emulsifier, plasticiser in cosmetics, eye shadows. Considered safe; may cause contact urticaria and allergic reactions.|
|Sorbitan palmitate||Generally recognised as being safe; may cause contact dermatitis.|
|Sorbitan stearate||Generally recognised as being safe; may cause contact urticaria.|
|Sorbitol||Derived from fruit or algae. A humectant that gives skin a velvety feel. Gives a lubricant quality to lotions.|
|Soybean Oil||Sugar-based ingredient; pulls water by osmosis from the largest source. Pale yellow oil. Consists of mostly glycerides of linoleic, oleic, linolenic, and palmitic acids. Typically this is the air, so it helps hydrate skin. In arid conditions, however, water will be pulled out of the skin, resulting in dehydration. May be GM.|
|Soytimonium chloride||A preservative, emulsifier in cosmetics. See Quaternary ammonium compounds.|
|Spearmint Oil||A fragrance, flavouring used in perfumes, toothpaste, perfumed cosmetics, food, chewing gum, cigarettes. Essential oil obtained from the fresh spearmint plant. Known for its healing, soothing properties.|
|Spermaceti||An emollient in shampoos, cold creams. Considered non-toxic but may become rancid and cause skin irritation.|
|Squalane||A lubricant, emollient in skin and hair cosmetics. Considered safe.|
|Squalene||An emollient, antistatic agent in skin care products, hair dyes, fixative in perfumes, shark liver oil, supplements. Considered to have beneficial health effects.|
|Starch||A thickener in dusting powder, baby powders, dry shampoos, processed foods. Poorly digested; cosmetics can cause acne; dermatitis; hay fever.|
|Starch - modified||A thickener, binder in cosmetics, processed food, baby foods, cigarette. Safety concern about the bodies resistance to chemicals used to modify the starch; diarrhoea in babies; when used in cosmetics can cause acne; hay fever; dermatitis.|
|Stannous fluoride||An oral care agent. See Fluoride.|
|Stearalkonium Chloride||Used almost universally in hair conditioners as a preservative. It was originally developed by the textile industry for use as a fabric softener , and is a lot cheaper and easier to use in hair conditioning formulas than proteins or herbals, which do help hair health. Toxic. See Cationic surfactants. See Quaternary ammonium compounds. It also has antistatic properties.|
|Stearamide DEA||An opacifier, antistatic used in shampoo, hair conditioner. DEA related ingredient, see Diethanolamine.|
|Stearamide MEA||An opacifier, antistatic used in shampoo, hair conditioner. MEA related ingredient, see Monoethanolamine.|
|Stearamidopropyl betaine||An antistatic agent in hair conditioners. See Quaternary ammonium compounds|
|Stearamidopropyl diethylamine||An antistatic agent, emulsifier in hair conditioners. Allergic dermatitis; may promote the formation of nitrosamines. See Nitrosamines.|
|Stearamidopropyl Tetrasodium EDTA||Nitrosamines can form in all cosmetic ingredients containing amines and amino derivatives with nitrogen compounds. Nitrosamines are known carcinogens.|
|Steareth-2,-4,-7,-10,-20,-30||Used as lotions and emulsifiers.|
|Stearic Acid||Waxy, crystalline fatty acid used as an emulsifier, anti-caking agent used in deodorants, hand creams, barrier creams, soaps, chewing gum base, suppositories. Found in cocoa butter and other vegetable fats. It is mainly from tallow and other animal fats. May cause irritation; health effects not adequately investigated.|
|Stearoyl sarcosine||An antistatic agent in shaving gel. See Sarcosines.|
|Stearyl alcohol||An emollient, opacifier in depilatories, hair rinse, moisturisers, shampoos, pharmaceuticals. May cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis in people with sensitive skin.|
|Stevia and stevioside||A natural sweetener, oral care agent used in toothpastes, dental care products, food, dietary supplements. No known side effects|
A binder in the manufacture of cosmetic resins,
chewing gum, manufacture of plastics. Liver, blood, endocrine, kidney and
neurotoxicity; teratogenic and neurotoxicity; carcinogenic.
MSDS: DANGER! FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED, INHALED OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. AFFECTS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, LIVER AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.
Potential Health Effects
|Styrene/PVP copolymer||A film former, opacifier used in liquid eyeliners. See styrene and Polyvinylpyrrolidone|
|Stratum Corneum||The topmost layer of cells of the epidermis.|
|Styrene Monomer||Carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic and causes adverse reactions. May be irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes.|
|Subcutaneous||The third and innermost layer of the skin.|
|Sulphate||Artificial liquid. Made with sulphated oils. Used to make manufactured soaps and detergents. Harmful to marine life and the environment.|
|Sulphites||A preservative, antioxidant used in hair waves, hair dyes, artificial tanning products, foods and beverages, cellophane for food packaging. Asthma; anaphylactic shock; skin rash; nausea; stomach irritation; diarrhoea; swelling; destroys vitamin B1.|
|Sulphonamide||A antibiotic used in cosmetics, nail polish, treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. Itching; skin rash; swelling; hives; kidney toxicity; teratogenic. On NIH hazards list.|
|Sulphur||Helps kill normal bacteria on the skin improving acne, seborrhea and psoriasis conditions. Typically found in soaps, shampoos and some topical acne medications.|
|Sugar Cane Extract||Gently removes damaged, dead and dry cell so fresh, healthy-looking skin can appear.|
|Sunflower Oil||Extracted from sunflower seeds it is rich in essential fatty acids.|
|Sunscreen/Sun block||Sunscreens provide protection from damaging/ harmful effects of UVB/ UVA rays. Sunscreens with a high Sun Protection Factor (SPF) can minimize the danger of photo damage and skin cancers. Sun blocks provide 100% protection from the sun and therefore do not enable one to tan.|
|Super oxide dismutase||A biological additive, antioxidant used in hair care products, skin screens, encapsulated and injectable pharmaceuticals. Considered safe and beneficial.|
|Surfactant||A material (substance) that helps oil and water to mix so that the two will not separate and will remain a smooth stable cream or lotion (Emulsifier). They are also are important for cosmetics where mildness is needed such as shampoos and lotions.|